Infrastructure Research Institute Projects

Principal Investigator


David Darwin daved@ku.edu
Deane E. Ackers Professor of Civil Engineering and Director of the Structural Engineering and Materials Laboratory

Co-Principal Investigators  


Carl E. Locke lok@ku.edu
Professor and Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and Dean Emeritus of the School of Engineering.

Trung V. Nguyen cptvn@ku.edu
Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering.

Graduate Research Assistants


Jason Kahrs
Lien Gong
Javier Balma
Jianxin Ji
Guohui Guo
Bin Ge
Jason Draper
Lihua Xing
Matt O'Reilly
Joe Sturgeon
James Lafikes
Scott Storm
Jayne Sperry

Test Setups and Procedures

Rapid Evaluation Tests

Bench Scale Tests

Research Links

Kepler, J.L., Darwin, D., and Locke, C.E., Jr. "Evaluation of Corrosion Protection Methods for Reinforced Concrete Highway Structures,"SM Report No. 58, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, May 2000, 221 pp.

Kahrs, J. T., Darwin, D., and Locke, C. E., "Evaluation of Corrosion Resistance of Type 304 Stainless Steel Clad Reinforcing Bars," SM Report No. 65, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, August 2001, 76 pp.

Darwin, D., Browning, J.P, Nguyen, T.V., and Locke, C.E., “Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of a High-Strength, High Chromium Reinforcing Steel for Concrete,” South Dakota Department of Transportation Report, SD2001-05-F , also SM Report No. 66, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, March 2002, pp. 142.

Gong, L., Darwin, D., Browning, J., and Locke, C. E., "Evaluation of Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of MMFX Reinforcing Steel for Concrete," SM Report No. 70, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, December 2002, 113 pp.

Balma, J., Darwin, D., Browning, J., and Locke, C. E., "Evaluation of Corrosion Resistance of Microalloyed Reinforcing Steel," SM Report No. 71, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, December 2002,171 pp.

Balma, J., Darwin, D., Browning, J., and Locke, C. E., "Evaluation of Corrosion Protection Systems and Corrosion Testing Methods for Reinforcing Steel in Concrete," SM Report No. 76, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, January 2005, 517 pp.

Ji, J., Darwin, D., and Browning, J., "Corrosion Resistance of Duplex Stainless Steels and MMFX Microcomposite Steel for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks," SM Report No. 80, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, December 2005, 453 pp.  

Gong, L., Darwin, D., Browning, J., and Locke, C. E., "Evaluation of Multiple Corrosion Protection Systems and Stainless Steel Clad Reinforcement for Reinforced Concrete," SM Report No. 82, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, January 2006, 540 pp.

Darwin, D., Browning, J.P., Locke, C.E. and Nguyen, T. V., "Multiple Corrosion Protection Systems for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Components," Publication No. FHWA-HRT-07-043, Federal Highway Administration, also SM Report 84, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, July 2007, 116 pp.

Guo, G., Darwin, D., Browning, J., and Locke, C. E., "Laboratory and Field Tests of Multiple Corrosion Protection Systems for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Components and 2205 Pickled Stainless Steel," SM Report No. 85, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, June 2006, 776 pp.

Darwin, D., Browning, J.P., Nguyen, T. V., and Locke, C.E., "Evaluation of Metallized Stainless Steel Clad Reinforcement," South Dakota Department of Transportation Report, SD2002-16-F, also SM Report No. 90, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, July 2007, 156 pp.

Darwin, D., Browning, J.P., O'Reilly, M., Xing, L., "Critical Chloride Corrosion Threshold for Galvanized Reinforcing Bars", SL Report 07-2, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, December 2007, 36 pgs.

Draper, J., Darwin, D., Browning, J. P., Locke, C. E., "Evaluation of Multiple Corrosion Protection Systems for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks," SM Report 96, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, December 2009, 429 pp.

Darwin, D., Browning, J.P., O’Reilly, M., Xing, L. and Ji, J., "Critical Chloride Corrosion Threshold of Galvanized Reinforcing Bars," ACI Materials Journal Vol. 106, No. 2, March/April 2009, pp. 176-183.

O'Reilly, M.,Darwin, D., and Browning, J.P., " Initial Evaluation of Corrosion Performance and Alkali Reactivity of Ceramic-Coated Reinforcing Bars," SL Report 10-1, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, January 2010, 29 pp.

O'Reilly, M., Sturgeon, W.J., Darwin, D., and Browning, J.P., "Rapid Macrocell Tests of LDX 2101® Stainless Steel Bars," SL Report 10-2, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, May 2010, 42 pp.

Sturgeon, W.J., O'Reilly, M., Darwin, and Browning, J.P., "Rapid Macorcell Tests of Enduramet® 2304 Stainless Steel Bars," SL Report 10-3, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, September 2010. 40 pp.

Sturgeon, W.J., O'Reilly, M., Darwin, and Browning, J.P., "Rapid Macorcell Tests of Enduramet® 32 Stainless Steel Bars," SL Report 10-5, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, November 2010. 17 pp.

Xing, L., Darwin, D., and Browning, J.P., "Evaluation of Multiple Corrosion Protection Systems and Corrosion Inhibitors for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks," SM Report 99 , University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, May 2010, 507 pp.

Sturgeon, W.J., O'Reilly, M., Darwin, D., and Browning, J.P., "Rapid Macrocell Tests of ASTM A775, A615, and A1035 Reinforcing Bars" SL Report 10-4, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, November 2010, 46 pp.

O'Reilly, M., Darwin, D., Browning, J.P., and Locke, Jr., C.E., "Evaluation of Multiple Corrosion Protection Systems for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks," SM Report 100, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, January 2011, 535 pp.

Sturgeon, W.J., O'Reilly, M., Darwin, and Browning, J.P., "Rapid Macorcell Tests of Enduramet® 33, Enduramet® 316LN, and Endurament® 2205 Stainless Steel Bars," SL Report 11-1, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, January 2011. 24 pp.

Lafikes, J., Storm, S., Darwin, D., Browning, J.P., and O'Reilly, M., "Stainless Steel Reinforcement as a Replacement for Epoxy Coated Steel in Bridge Decks," Annual Report for FY 2011, ODOT SPR Item Number 2231, also University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, KS, October 2011, 71 pp.

Darwin, D., Browning, J., O'Reilly, M., Locke, C. E., and Virmani, Y. P., "Multiple Corrosion Protection Systems for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Components," Publication No. FHWA-HRT-11-060, Federal Highway Administration, also SM Report No. 101, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, November 2011, 255 pp.

Lafikes, J., Storm, S., Darwin, D., Browning, J.P., and O'Reilly, M., "Stainless Steel Reinforcement as a Replacement for Epoxy Coated Steel in Bridge Decks," Annual Report for FY 2011, ODOT SPR Item Number 2231, also SL Report 11-4, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, KS, November 2011, 172 pp.

O'Reilly, M., Darwin, D., and Browning, J.P., "Corrosion Performance of Prestressing Strands in Contact with Dissimilar Grouts," SL Report 12-1, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, April 2012, 50 pp.

O'Reilly, M. and Darwin, D., "Rapid Macorcell Tests of 2304 and XM-28 Reinforcing Bars," SL Report 12-3a, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, November 2012, 17 pp. Download pdf

O'Reilly, M. and Darwin, D., "Rapid Macorcell Tests of 2205 and XM-28 Reinforcing Bars," SL Report 13-2a, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, January 2013, 29 pp. Download pdf

O'Reilly, M., Darwin, D., Browning, J., Xing, L., Locke Jr., C.E., and Virmani, P., "Effect of Corrosion Inhibitors on Concrete Pore Solution Composition and Corrosion Resistance," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 110, No. 5, September-October 2013, pp. 577-585. Download pdf

Darwin, D., O'Reilly, M., Somogie, I., Sperry, J., Lafikes, J., Storm, Browning, J., "Stainless Steel Reinforcement as a Replacement for Epoxy Coated Steel in Bridge Decks," SM 105, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, August 2013, 205 pp. Download pdf

Farshadfar, O., Keith C. A., O’Reilly, M., Darwin, D. "Corrosion Tests of XM28 Stainless Steel Reinforcing Bars," SL Report No. 16-3, The University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, KS, August 2016, 34 pp. Download​ pdf

Farshadfar, O., O’Reilly, M., Darwin, D. "Performance Evaluation of Corrosion Protection Systems for Reinforced Concrete," SM Report No. 122, The University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, KS, January 2017, 350 pp. Download pdf

PROJECT SUMMARY:

ACCELERATED TESTING FOR CONCRETE REINFORCING BAR CORROSION PROTECTION SYSTEMS

The corrosion of reinforcing steel in highway structures results in maintenance and replacement costs in the United States that are measured in billions of dollars. The problem, due principally to chlorides in deicing salts and sea water, is the main durability concern in most transportation structures. As a result, methods that can significantly reduce or halt chloride induced corrosion have been aggressively pursued for well over thirty years. In spite of the progress that has been made during this period, the costs to implement corrosion protection techniques differ markedly, with ratios as large six to one. In addition, there is little evidence of a quantitative correlation between the performance of the techniques in the laboratory and in the field, increasing the difficulties in developing and selecting new systems. The lack of a direct correlation between laboratory and field performance is due largely to the evolving nature of the laboratory tests and the need to innovate in practice without waiting for the development of a correlation or, in some cases, waiting for lab results that may take several years. The goal of the current study is to development a detailed correlation between accelerated laboratory tests and field performance for a broad range of corrosion protection systems. The study, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the Kansas Department of Transportation and carried out in partnership with the manufacturers of corrosion protection systems, takes advantage of ongoing state and university surveys in northeast Kansas evaluating the performance of bridge decks. The study includes the evaluation and modification of laboratory test procedures to establish those that provide the best match with the corrosion behavior of reinforced concrete bridge decks subjected to normal and accelerated exposure. The corrosion evaluation techniques address the protection provided by epoxy-coated bars, corrosion inhibiting admixtures, corrosion-resistant steel, the effects of different deicers, and modifications in concrete mix proportions. Corrosion performance is compared using five existing bridges selected from a group of 80 evaluated under one prior and one current study at the University of Kansas, five bridges scheduled for construction during the period of the proposed work, and field test specimens constructed in conjunction with the five new bridges. The principal laboratory techniques include the Southern Exposure, cracked beam, ASTM G 109, rapid corrosion potential, and rapid macrocell tests. In addition to "standard" versions of these tests, specimens are modified to obtain polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance measurements. Field tests involve the detailed evaluation of five existing bridges based on material properties, construction history, crack profiles, overall condition, half-cell potentials, and polarization resistance measurements. The corrosion behavior of the bridges is compared with closely matched laboratory specimens. The five newly constructed bridges are instrumented with preinstalled electrical connections to obtain corrosion measurements and constructed with different corrosion protection systems. The performance of the newly constructed decks is compared with matching laboratory test specimens, fabricated with the same materials, and 1.3 x 2.6 m (4 x 8 ft) field test platforms fabricated using the same geometry, reinforcing steel, concrete, and corrosion protection systems as used in the decks. The field test platforms are subjected to corrosion environments matching those of the bridge and to aggressive corrosion environments matching those obtained in the laboratory. Direct correlation of corrosion performance will allow more effective and rational evaluation techniques to be instituted. The final result will be more efficient selection procedures, more rapid movement of corrosion technology into practice, the extension of structure service life, and the overall reduction in the repair and rehabilitation costs associated with chloride induced corrosion in reinforced concrete structures.


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